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SECTION TWO: BASIC WINDOWS

SECTION TWO CHAPTER THREE OUTLINE

                    3. Some Advanced Operations:
      1. Using Windows Explorer
        1. Opening Windows Explorer
        2. Parts of Explorer Window
        3. Opening and closing files from Explorer Window
        4. Creating new folder from Windows Explorer
        5. Creating new file from Windows Explorer
                        2. Finding Files

                        3. Recycle Bin

CHAPTER 2.3: Working with Windows: Advanced Operations

Chapter Objective: Proficiency in conducting some advanced operations in Windows, especially using Windows Explorer

Just like books are organized in a library or files are organized in an office, similarly all program and document files in your system are also organized. This is to help computer users get quick access to their information. Some of this organisation is automated, but users have the full control of their computer systems and can change the location of any file. To be an efficient computer user, you must know how to work with Windows Explorer, Search, and Recycle Bin.

TOPIC 2.3.1: Using Windows Explorer

Windows Explorer is a tool that gives you a complete picture of all the files and folders in your system. Through this tool you can perform various file management tasks.

1. Opening Windows ExplorerThere are many ways to start the windows explorer, these are as follows:

a. If you are using the mouse - There are two ways of opening Windows Explorer using the mouse:

First: You can take the mouse over the 'My Computer' icon on the desktop and right-click. A small menu of commands will appear. The second command from top will be 'Explore', move your mouse over this and left-click. A new window will open launching windows explorer in it.

Second: You can take the mouse over the Start button and right click, the second option from the top will be 'Explore', move your mouse over this and left-click. A new window will open launching windows explorer in it.

b. If you are using the keyboard - There are two ways of opening Windows Explorer using the keyboard:

First: Press the 'Start' key on the keyboard. This is the second key from the space bar on either side. Press down the Start key, and simultaneously press the 'E' key. A new window will open launching windows explorer in it.

Second: Press the Start key once. This will open the Start Menu on the screen. Now press 'P' key to open the Program submenu. In the Program submenu, use the down-arrow direction key to scroll down and reach the option labeled Windows Explorer and then press 'Enter'. A new window will open launching windows explorer in it.

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2. Parts of Windows Explorer

There are five parts of the Explorer window. These are as follows:

a. Title bar: Like with any other window, the title bar is the topmost component of the Explorer Window also. It is a thin, half a centimeter wide, rectangular strip that displays the name of the folder being accessed on the left-hand corner. For example, if you are in My Documents folder, the title bar will display 'Exploring-My Documents'. On the right hand corner

b. Menu bar - It is located immediately below the title bar. Like the title bar, this is also a thin half -centimeter wide rectangular strip. It contains a row of options called menu bar options. These are command menus for performing various operations and comprise of File, Edit, View, Go, Favorites, Tools and Help. If you click on any of these options, a sub-menu will open with a listing of all commands within that menu bar option.

c. Tool bar: This is immediately below the menu bar and contains various shot-cut commands in graphic form. You can access this part of the explorer only by using the mouse.

d. Address bar- It is a thin rectangular strip that displays the path of the folder being accessed. You can this by using the tab key. When you are in the address bar, you can type the path of the folder or file you want to access and press enter. That folder or file will open.

e. Folders pane - Below the address bar, the screen is vertically divided into two frames. One is the folders pane and the other is the contents pane. These two panes occupy approximately 70% of the window. The folders pane consists of the hierarchy of all the folders in your computer. This hierarchy of folders is sometimes called the folder tree. You can access this component of the windows explorer by using the tab key. Once you are in the folders pane, you can access any folder by using the arrow direction keys. The up arrow and down arrow keys are used to move up and down the tree, irrespective of the level of the folder. The right arrow direction key opens all sub-folders within a folder, while the left arrow direction key closes (wraps up) all sub-folders within a folder

f. Contents pane - This is adjacent to the folders pane. When you select a folder in the folders pane, all sub-folders and documents within that folder are displayed in the contents pane. You can access this component of the windows explorer by using the tab key. The files and folders can be arranged in four ways in this pane - Large icons, small icons, list and details. These arrangements are called views. The list view gives an alphabetic listing of all folders and documents. The detailed view gives the name, size, type and date of creation of each document and folder. Once you are in the contents pane, you can access any folder or document by using the arrow direction keys. To open a folder or document from this pane, press enter key after selecting you have reached the folder or document.

g. Status bar- This is the bottom most part of the Windows explorer. It is also a thin rectangular bar about half a centimeter. It is vertically divided into three parts. The left-part displays the number of contents within a selected folder, the middle-part displays the size of these contents while the right-part displays 'My Computer'.

Instructor link: Classroom activity on Parts of windows explorer

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3. Opening and Closing files in Windows Explorer

We have created a notepad document, called Test One earlier in the My Documents folder. To open a file in the Windows Explorer, the following steps will be required:

1. Open the Windows explorer. You may use the Start Key and E key on the keyboard. This will launch the Windows explorer in a new window.

2. In the opened Windows explorer, My Computer will be selected by default in the folders pane.

3. We already know that My Documents folder resides in the Hard Drive (C:). Press down arrow direction key two times. This will take you to C: and select the hard drive. Now you can do two things:

  1. Use the right arrow direction key to open the folders within C:, and then use the down arrow direction key to reach 'My Documents'. When you reach this folder press 'Tab' key once. This will take you to the contents pane. Now use the down arrow directions key to reach Test One document and press enter once you reach the document.
  2. Alternatively, when you reach C: in the folders pane, press 'Tab' key once. This will take you to the contents pane. Now use the down arrow directions key to reach My Documents folder and press enter. This will open all the contents of My Document in the contents pane. Now again use the down arrow direction key to reach Test One document and press enter once you reach the document.
4. There is a shorter way of reaching My Documents folder. In the folders pane, My Documents is listed immediately below the unopened My Computer. This means that when you open the Windows explorer, My Computer will appear pre-selected and opened upto one-level down. Now press the left arrow direction key once to wrap-up the My Computer folder. Now, press the down arrow direction key once to move down one folder and reach the My Documents folder. Press enter and then proceed as mentioned in point 3 above.

4. Creating new file in Windows Explorer

We will create a new notepad file named 'Testing Two' in the folder named 'Test' in (C:). To create do this, the following steps will be required:

  1. Open the Windows explorer. You may use the Start Key and E key on the keyboard. This will launch the Windows explorer in a new window.
  2. Now since we have to create a new file in folder named 'Test' in the Hard Drive (C:), we need to first select 'Test' folder in the folders pane. So after opening the explorer, we will first select C: by pressing the down arrow direction key two times. This will take the cursor from My Computer to C: and the hard drive will be selected.
  3. Here press the right arrow direction key once to open the sub-folders in C:. Now use the down arrow direction key to reach and select the 'Test' folder.
  4. After selecting 'Test' folder, Press Alt key and F key. This will open the File menu drop-down. Here either use the down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'New'. Alternatively, after the drop-down opens just press 'N' key. This will take you to 'New' option.
  5. Now press the right arrow direction key, once. A new sub-menu will open with several options. We have to select the option labeled 'Text Document'. Use the down arrow direction key to reach and select 'Text Document'.
  6. Pressing Enter once now will create a new notepad file (also called text file) in the Test folder in your (C:).
  7. The cursor will be on the name of this newly created file. To name the file 'Testing Two', just type 'Testing Two' and press Enter once.
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5. Creating new folder in Windows Explorer

We will create a new folder named 'Test' on the hard disk. To create a new folder in the Windows Explorer, the following steps will be required:

  1. Open the Windows explorer. You may use the Start Key and E key on the keyboard. This will launch the Windows explorer in a new window.
  2. Now since we have to create a new folder in the Hard Drive (C:), we need to select it in the folders pane. As we know, when windows explorer opens, the cursor is on My computer, press down arrow direction key two times. This will take you to C: and the hard drive will be selected.
  3. In the opened Windows explorer, Press Alt key and F key. This will open the File menu drop-down. Here either use the down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'New'. Alternatively, after the drop-down opens just press 'N' key. This will take you to 'New' option.
  4. Now press the right arrow direction key, once. A new sub-menu will open and its first option will be 'folder' which will appear pre-selected.
  5. Pressing Enter once now will create a new folder in your hard drive.
  6. The cursor will be on the name of this folder. To name the folder 'Test', just type 'Test' and press Enter once.
TOPIC 2.3.2: Finding Files on your system

To be make more efficient use of your time while working on computer, you may use the search functionality to quickly find a particular folder or document. To find files on your system, you can either do it by opening the My Computer folder, and then conducting a search. Alternatively, you can open the Windows Explorer and then conduct the search. We will try both the options, and we will try to find the Test One notepad file created by you earlier.

  • Searching files from My Computer

      1. From the desktop select My Computer icon and press 'Enter'. This will launch the 'My Computer' window.
      2. Now press the down arrow direction key once, so that you select the hard disk - (C:)
      3. Now press 'Alt' key and then press 'F' key on the keyboard. This will open the File menu drop-down from the menu bar.
      4. In the File menu drop-down, use the down and up arrow direction keys to browse through the options. To find a document or folder in (C:), we have to select the 'Find' option in the File menu drop-down. This is the third option from top. Use the down arrow direction key to reach this option and then press 'Enter'.
      5. This will open a Find dialog box. This dialog box has a Title bar on the top; a menu bar immediately below the title bar; Search Area where users type in the search criteria; and adjacent to the Search are three vertically stacked buttons - Find Now, Stop, and New Search.
      6. The Search Area contains three tabs: Name & Location, Date, and Advanced. These tabs refer to the search criteria you may want to specify. You can move between these tabs by using the left and right arrow direction keys. We will focus on the Name & Location tab for now.
      7.  In Name & Location tab there is a form with three fields. These are Named, Containing Text, and Look in.
      8. 'Named' field refers to the name of the file or folder you are looking for. 'Containing Text' field pertains to the text within the document that might help in identifying the specific document you are looking for. 'Look in' field refers to the folder in which your file or folder might be residing.
      9. When the Find dialog-box opens, the Name & Location tab appears pre-selected. The cursor will be in the 'Named:' text field, type the filename (Testing One) you are looking for in this field and press 'Enter'.
      10. Now press Tab key once. This will take the cursor into the 'Containing Text' field. Leave this field blank for now.
      11. Pressing Tab once again will take you to 'Look in' field. Here C: will appear automatically. You may change this, but leave it as it is for now. Pressing tab after 'Look in' field will take you to a Browse button. If you press enter on this button, another dialog box will open and you will be able to select the folder where you expect to find your file. However, for now we do not need to browse. Pressing Tab once again, will take you to a check box labeled 'include subfolders'. This appears pre-selected, and it means that all sub-folders of the folder selected in the 'Look in' field will be searched. Since it is already selected we do not need to do anything here for now.
      12. Pressing 'Tab' key again will again select the Name & Location tab in the dialog box. Press tab once again to reach the 'Find Now' button. Here press 'Enter' key.
      The search results will be listed in the dialog box. Use the down arrow key to browse through the search results. My Documents should be the first one from the top. Press 'Enter' when you are on it.

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      B. Searching files from Windows Explorer

      • Press the 'Start Key' button and then 'E' key to open the Windows Explorer.
      • Now press 'Alt' key and 'T' key. This will open the Tools menu drop down from the menu bar
      • There will be two options in the drop-down, named 'Find' and 'Synchronize'. Find will appear pre-selected.
      • Press the right arrow direction key. This will open a sub-menu with four options. These options are: Files or Folders, On the Internet, Using Microsoft Outlook, and People. We need the Files or Folders options, and it appears pre-selected. So, after you have opened the Tools drop-down, just press the right arrow direction key once and press enter.
      • This will open the Find dialog box. This dialog box is similar to the one described in the instructions for searching files from My Computer and requires same steps.
      TOPIC 2.3.3: Recycle Bin

      Whenever a document, file or folder is deleted from a computer, it is sent to the Recycle Bin. Its function is the same as that of a dustbin in our homes and offices, i.e., you put whatever you don’t need in it before its contents go to the garbage collector in next morning. You need to clean the Recycle regularly, atleast once a weak, to free memory space on your hard disk. Follow the instructions given below to perform some operations in the recycle bin:

      A. From Windows Explorer

      1. Open the Windows explorer

      2. Now use the down directions key to browse down to the Recycle Bin. Alternatively, as soon as the explorer opens press 'R' key to select the Recycle Bin

      3. Now you can either remove a particular file from the system, or you can empty all the contents of the recycle bin.

      4. To remove a particular file, press the tab key once to go to the contents pane. Now use the down arrow direction key to browse through the files and folders in the recycle bin.

      5. When you have reached the file you wanted to delete, press the delete key. There will be a confirmation box, asking you if you are you sure you want to delete the selected file. There will be two buttons Yes and No. Press Enter on Yes.

      6. To empty all the contents of the recycle bin, after you have opened the windows explorer and selected the recycle bin, press 'Alt' and 'F' keys. This will open the File menu drop-down. The first option in this drop-down will be 'Empty Recycle Bin'. This option will appear pre-selected. Now press enter key. There will be a confirmation box, asking you if you are you sure you want to delete the items in the recycle bin. There will be two buttons Yes and No. Press Enter on Yes.

      7. You can also restore a file from the recycle bin, back to the place from where it was deleted. Press tab after you have selected the recycle bin in the folders pane, to reach the contents pane. Now use the down arrow direction key to reach the file you want to restore.

      8. Now press Alt and F keys to open the File menu drop-down from the menu bar. The first option in this drop-down will be 'Restore'. Press Enter. This will restore the file back to the place from where it was deleted.

      B. From Desktop

      1. Go to the Desktop, and use the arrow direction keys to reach Recycle Bin. Press Enter to open Recycle bin in a new window.

      2. All the files and folders in the recycle bin will be listed. To remove a particular file or folder, use the down arrow direction key to browse through the files and folders in the recycle bin.

      3. When you have reached the file you wanted to delete, press the delete key. There will be a confirmation box, asking you if you are you sure you want to delete the selected file. There will be two buttons Yes and No. Press Enter on Yes.

      4. To empty all the contents of the recycle bin, press 'Alt' and 'F' keys. This will open the File menu drop-down. The first option in this drop-down will be 'Empty Recycle Bin'. This option will appear pre-selected. Now press enter key. There will be a confirmation box, asking you if you are you sure you want to delete the items in the recycle bin. There will be two buttons Yes and No. Press Enter on Yes.

      5. You can also restore a file from the recycle bin, back to the place from where it was deleted. Use the arrow direction keys to reach the file you want to restore.

      6. Now press Alt and F keys to open the File menu drop-down from the menu bar. The first option in this drop-down will be 'Restore'. Press Enter. This will restore the file back to the place from where it was deleted.

      Chapter Exercises

    1. Create a new folder, named Movies, on your hard disk from Windows Explorer.
    2. Create a new folder, named Hindi movies, in the Movies folder previously created by you.
    3. Create a new notepad file, named 'Star Cast', in 'Hindi movies' folder.
    4. Conduct a search for Star Cast from My Computer, and then open the file from Find dialog box.
    5. Delete the Hindi Movies folder, and then restore it from recycle bin.
    6. Delete the file Star Cast from Hindi Movies folder, and then remove it from recycle bin.
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        Term Explanation

        Search Criteria

        When you want to find a file or folder, you have to tell the computer something about the file or folder you are looking for. This could be the name of the file, some particular text that it may contain, which folder you expect it be in, the time when the file was created, and so on. So, whatever you tell the computer about the file is called the search criteria.

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        Classroom Activities

        Parts of Windows Explorer


        The instructor should guide the students through various parts of the windows explorer. After the instructor has explained these parts to the students, they should be asked to identify each part by accessing it.

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      1. SECTION TWO: BASIC WINDOWS

        SECTION TWO CHAPTER TWO OUTLINE

                    2. Working with Windows: Basic operations

                                1. Running Programs

                                2. Closing Programs

                                3. Creating a new file and saving it

                                4. Working in an existing file and saving changes

        CHAPTER 2.2: Working with Windows: Basic Operations

        Chapter Objective: Proficiency in conducting basic operations in Windows

        To be able to work with windows, you need to know some basic operations. These include running and closing programs, working and saving in an existing file, opening and saving a new file.

        TOPIC 2.2.1: Running or launching a program

        You need to run a program to start working on the computer. Following are different methods of starting a program:

        • Using the Start Menu bar
        • Using short cut icons on Desktop
        • Using short cut icons on Task bar
        • Directly launching a program file from Windows explorer
        You can create short cut icons for most programs on your desktop and task bar, so that you can get quick access to most frequently used programs. You can launch these programs either by double-clicking on these icons or by selecting the icon and then pressing enter. We will discuss using Windows explorer in Advanced Operations.

        Now, we will learn to launch programs from start menu. As an example, we will learn to launch the Notepad program.

        1. Press the Start button to open the Start menu.
        2. Use the arrow direction keys to move to Programs options. You can also press 'P' key on the keyboard to reach Programs.
        3. When you are at Programs, press Enter key to open the Programs sub-menu. This sub-menu lists all the programs and program folder in the computer.
        4. On the Programs sub-menu, the first option is 'Accessories' which will appear pre-selected. Press Enter key again. This will open the Accessories sub-menu with a listing of programs and program folders.
        5. On the Accessories sub-menu, either use the direction key to move down to Notepad and press Enter, or simply press 'N'. This will launch the Notepad program in a new window.
        6. You can similarly launch other programs from Start Menu.
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        TOPIC 2.2.2: Closing a program

        To close a program follow the instructions given below. The process will be the same for all programs. Here we explain by taking the example of Notepad program.

        1. If you are using a mouse, simply take the screen pointer to the close button on the topmost right corner of the screen and click on it.
        2. Alternatively, you can also press 'Alt' key, space bar, and 'C' key to close it.
        3. There is a third way of doing it, you can press 'Alt' key and then 'F' key to open the File menu drop-down menu. On this menu, either press 'X' or move down to 'Exit' option and press 'Enter' key.
        4. If you follow any of the three options mentioned above, some programs will close immediately; but some programs confirm whether you want to save the changes made in the contents of the document/file. There are three choices - Yes, No and Cancel. On clicking 'Yes' button it will save the changes if it is an existing document/file, or it will ask you to specify a place on the computer where you want to keep the document/file. Clicking on 'No' closes the program without saving any changes. Clicking on Cancel keeps the document open.
        TOPIC 2.2.3: Creating a new file and saving it

        Now that you know how to open a program, you are ready to start creating new documents and files. Also, to be able to access the documents created by you, you should also know how to save them on your computer. As you know that there are several types of programs to help you accomplish specific tasks. For example, for word processing you may use MS-Word, Wordpad or Notepad. Notepad offers very basic word processing features, while MS-Word offers highly advanced word processing features. Wordpad falls in between the two in terms of the features it offers to the users. If you want to work on a spreadsheet, you may use MS-Excel. Here, we will learn how to create a new notepad file.

        1. To create a new document, you need to follow the same process as required to start running a program. That is, go to the start menu, then press 'P', use direction key to move towards your right and then select the type of document or file you want to create. Since we want to create a notepad, after you have moved towards the right, a sub-menu will appear. Select Accessories, which is the first option from the top, and then use the direction key to get a third menu. On the third menu, press 'N'.
        2. A new window will open, launching a new notepad file. A blinking cursor will be displayed in the Notepad program, indicating that it is ready to accept text. The cursor also indicates the position where the text will appear, once you type it. Type something in the file.
        3. To save this file, go to File menu bar either by using the mouse, or by pressing Alt and F keys together. When the File menu drop-down opens, press S. This will open the 'Save As' box. Save As, box asks you the exact location on your computer where a copy of the opened document could be saved.
        4. There are four fields in the Save As box. The first field from the top is labeled 'Save in'. This field displays the folder in which your document will be saved. By default, it will select 'My Documents' folder.
        5. The next field is the Folders pane which displays all sub-folders and documents within the selected folder. So, if My Documents folder has been selected, the second field will show the sub-folders and documents under My Documents folders.
        6. The third field from the top in the Save As box is File Name, which displays the name of the new file. By default, the new file is named as 'Untitled'.

        User Tip

        7. The fourth and last field is labeled 'Save as type' and it shows the type of program to be saved. The default selection for Notepad is Text Documents.
        8. You may make changes to the default selections in the Save As box. To change the default folder selection in 'Save in' field, press the 'Tab' key four times and then pressing the down key. This will open a drop-down menu listing all the drives on your computer. Select the drive in which you want to save your document and press 'Enter'. This will list all the sub-folders and documents under the selected drive in 'Folders pane'. You can go to any sub-folder by pressing Tab key once and then using arrow direction key. After you have reached the intended sub-folder, press Enter key. You can go further down within the sub-folders in the same way till you have reached the sub-folder where you want to save your document. For the purpose of this exercise we shall save the document in the default My Documents folder. If you want to change the name of the document, you can do so as soon as the Save As box appears because the cursor is in the File Name field. Change the name of your Notepad file to, 'Test One'.
        9. After you have changed the name of the file, just press Enter. Your file will be saved in My Documents folder with the name Test One.
        10. You may now close the 'Test One' document, by pressing Alt key, F key and then 'X' key. The alternate method is to press Alt, space bar and 'C' keys.

        Back to Chapter Outline

        TOPIC 2.2.4: Working in an existing file and saving changes

        You now know how to create a new document and save it. Suppose you want to make some changes in the document created by you or someone else, on your computer. We will take the example of the 'Test One' notepad document created by you and make some changes on that to learn how to work with document files already existing on your computer.

        1. To work with an existing document, you should know where the document is residing on your computer. You remember that you had saved Test One, in the My Documents folder. So we have to first open this folder. You already know how to open the My Documents folder, but here is a quick reminder. From the desktop, select My Computer and press Enter key. In the new window, use direction keys to reach to (C:) and press Enter key. The window will refresh and will display the contents of (C:), please use direction keys to reach My documents folder and then press Enter.
        2. The window will refresh and will display the contents of My Documents folder. In this folder, please use direction keys to reach Test One document. Press Enter key to open this document.
        3. In a new window, Test One document will open. You can make any changes in this document. For example, you may add new text by typing in the document, or you can move the cursor to a specific place to make corrections or you may delete existing text.
        4. To save the changes made by you, press Alt and F keys. This will open the File menu drop down. Now press S key. The changes made by you in the document will be saved.
        5. You may want to make a copy of the changed document. To make a copy, press Alt and F keys. This will open the File menu drop down. Now press key 'A' on the keyboard. This will open the Save As box and the rest of the process has already been described before.

        Back to Chapter Outline

        Topic Exercises

        1. Launch Wordpad program and close it
        2. Create a new notepad file, name the file after your name and save it on the Desktop.
        3. Open the file with your name from the desktop and add some matter in the notepad file.
        4. What are the three alternative methods of closing a running program
        5. Make a copy of the notepad file with your name in My Documents

        USER TIP

        File Name

        In a folder, there cannot be two files with the same name. Each file in a particular folder must have unique names.

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        Back to Chapter Outline

        SECTION TWO: BASIC WINDOWS

        SECTION TWO CHAPTER ONE OUTLINE

        1. Working with windows 98: Important Features

        1. The Desktop

        2. Icons

        3. Taskbar and start button

        4. Window

        5. Menus

        SECTION 2: Windows Basics

        Section Objective: Basic understanding of Windows and ability to perform elementary tasks

        SECTION ONE: BASIC PC SKILLS

        CHAPTER THREE OUTLINE

          1. Components of a PC
            1. Hardware
            2. Processor
            3. Memory
            4. Input/Output Devices
              1. Keyboard
              2. Mouse and its variants
              3. Microphones
              4. Monitor
              5. Sound Systems
              6. Printers
            5. Storage
              1. Hard Disk
              2. Floppy Diskettes
              3. CD-ROMs
              4. Other Storage Devices
               6.    Software
                          1.   System Software
                          2.   Operating System
               7.    Application Software
                         1.    Word Processors
                         2.    Presentation Programs
                         3.    Database Management Software
                         4.    Others

          8.Turning the computer on and off
            Chapter 1.3: Components of a PC system

            Chapter Objective:
            Impart the ability to identify and work with various components of the PC

            As discussed in chapter 1.2, a computer is made up of Hardware and Software. In this chapter we will discuss these two components in detail, so that you are familiar with the functions of these components when you work with computers.

            TOPIC 1.3.1: Hardware

            Topic Objective: To discuss different Hardware components of a PC system


            We have already discussed, in Chapter 1.2, the external appearance of a personal computer appears. Besides these, there is a lot more that constitutes a computer. We will now discuss the important hardware components of a PC in detail.

            As we already know that computers transform raw data into information. This procedure is called processing and to perform this task two components are used: the processor and memory.

            TOPIC 1.3.2: Processor

            It is the most important part of the PC because this is where all the processing takes place. It is like the brain of the computer. It usually consists of one or more microprocessors. Microprocessors are thin chips of silicon or other material consisting of several tiny electronic circuits. Electricity is passed through these circuits to process data. Microprocessors of a computer are also called its central processing unit or CPU. The popular Pentium chip is a type of microprocessor manufactured by Intel corporation.

            The microprocessor is mounted on the computer's motherboard. Motherboard is a flat rectangular card containing the electronic circuits that connect the processor to the other hardware. Motherboard contains special slots to plug in different internal devices such as video cards, sound cards, disk controllers etc.

            The CPU consists of two parts: the control unit and the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). The control unit contains the instructions for the CPU. These instructions are written in the form of computer programs and are carried out sequentially by the control unit. The ALU performs all arithmetic and logical operations.

            The measure of a CPU's processing capability is the speed and accuracy with which these instructions are carried out. The speed of a CPU is measured in MegaHertz (MHz) and it shows the amount of data processed in one operation. The speed of various microprocessors available these days is between 600 MHz and 1700 MHz. Intel manufactures the most popular microprocessors, Pentium and Celeron.

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            TOPIC 1.3.3: Memory

            A computer system requires memory to launch and run programs as well as to store the results of the data processed by the CPU. System memory is of two types: Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM).

            1. Random Access Memory (RAM) - This is the read/write memory of the computer. Data is written to and read from this memory. It is used to store data and application programs. However, RAM is volatile and requires constant supply of power. Whenever the system is turned off, all contents of RAM disappear. This is why it is necessary to frequently save data to a storage device. The amount of RAM in a computer directly affects its speed and power. The measurement unit to describe a computer's memory is the byte. A byte is the amount of memory needed to store a single character (a letter or numeral). To refer to larger amounts of memory, the following units are used:

            Unit Abbreviation Approximate Value in bytes Actual Value in bytes

            Kilobyte

            SECTION ONE: BASIC PC SKILLS

            CHAPTER ONE OUTLINE

              1. Introduction to computers
                1. Why Computers?
                2. Different types of computers
                  A. Microcomputers or personal computers
                  1. Desktop computers
                  2. Notebooks
                  3. Network computers
                  4. Handheld personal computers
                  B. Workstations

            Synonym and Antonym

            Serial Number Word Synonym Antonym
            1 Abandon Leave Pursue
            2 Abash Humble Conceited
            3 Abate Decrease Increase
            4 Aberration Shorten Lengthen
            5 Abduct Kidnap Deliver
            6 Aberration Distortion Truth
            7 Abhor Dislike Like
            8 Abject Servile Arrogant
            9 Abjure Give Up Accept
            10 Abridge Summaries Expand
            11 Abscond Disappear Present
            12 Accumulate Gather  Scatter
            13 Acquaintance Familiar  Ignorant
            14 Adversity Misfortune Good Fortune
            15 Allay Relieve Worsen
            16 Allure Charm Repel
            17 Ally Friend  Enemy
            18 Ample Enough Limited
            19 Annex Take Possession Give Up
            20 Annihilate Destroy Establish
            21 Apparent Clear Unclear
            22 Ascend Go Up Come Down
            23 Assent Agree Disagree
            24 Auspicious Fortunate Unfortunate
            25 Awkward Unskillful Skilful
            26 Bankrupt Penniless Prosperous
            27 Benevolence Kindness Cruelty
            28 Bewilder Confuse Enlighten
            29 Bliss Joy Sorrow
            30 Blunt Insensitive Sensitive
            31 Boost Help   Hinder 
            32 Brace Support Weaken
            33 Brevity Brief Enlarge
            34 Brusque Curt   Courteous
            35 Calamity Disaster Prosperity
            36 Casuality Accident Intentional
            37 Celibate Unmarried Married
            38 Clumsy Awkward Elegant
            39 Clutch  Grasp Release
            40 Coarse  Rough Refined
            41 Coherence Solidity Break
            42 Combat Battle  Peace
            43 Compassion Sympathy Cruel
            44 Compress Condense Expand
            45 Concord Accord Discord
            46 Confine Limit Extend
            47 Conscientious Principled Disbelief
            48 Considerate  Thoughtful   Careless
            49 Contemptible Detestable Admirable
            50 Creed Belief Disbelief
            51 Cripple Disable Able
            52  Cynical Distrustful Believing
            53 Dainty Delicate Coarse
            54 Deception  Fraud Honesty
            55 Decline Decrease Enhance
            56 Deed Action Passivity
            57 Delicacy Elegance Crudeness
            58 Denote Imply Conceal
            59 Dependence Reliance Independence
            60 Despair Dejection Elation
            61 Despise Hate Admire
            62 Deviate Stray Abide
            63 Diligent Laborious Lazy
            64 Dissolve Break Up Join
            65 Diversity Variety Unify
            66 Dreadful Frightening Pleasing
            67 Ebb Decline Increase
            68 Enchant Fascinate Disgust
            69 Encroach Intrude Withdraw
            70 Endanger Risk Protect
            71 Envious Jealous Content
            72 Evasion Avoid Defend
            73 Exert  Strain Rest
            74 Extravagant Wasteful Economical
            75 Fanciful Imaginary Real
            76 Feeble Weak  Strong
            77 Filthy Dirty Clean
            78 Foresight Foreknowledge Short sight
            79 Fundamental Basic  Secondary 
            80 Gorgeous Magnificent Simple
            81 Grasp Hold Release
            82 Hazard Danger Surety
            83 Humid       Moist         Dry
            84 Humorous Funny Serious
            85 Hypocrisy Pretend Honesty
            86 Ignoble Servile Noble
            87 Imitate Copy Original
            88 Imminent  Impending Unlikely
            89 Inclement Unfavourable Favourable
            90  Induce  Persuade Discourage
            91 Insert Put In Remove
            92 Integrity Honesty Dishonesty
            93 Intensify  Increase Decrease
            94 Jest Joke Serious
            95 Kindle Ignite Put out
            96 Miscellaneous Various Identical
            97 Modest Humble Arrogant
            98 Mourn Grieve Rejoice
            99 Nimble Fast Slow
            100 Notion Belief  Truth
            101 Numerous Various few
            102 Obligatory Necessary Voluntary
            103 Oblivious Unaware Aware
            104 Obscure Unclear Plain
            105 Onerous Difficult Easy
            106 Ooze Drip Pour
            107 Ooze Hopeful Pessimist
            108 Outbreak Tumult  Order
            109 Pacify Appease  Irritate
            110 Partial Unfair  Fair
            111 Peculiar Odd  Usual
            112 Persist Continue  Discontinue
            113 Predominant Prominent  Subsidiary
            114 Predicament Problem  Decision
            115 Prediction Forecast  Conceal
            116 Premature Untimely  Timely
            117 Privilege Favour  Inhibition
            118 Profess Declare  Conceal
            119 Prohibit Ban  Authorize
            120 Prolong Lengthen  Shorten
            121 Queer Strange  Ordinary
            122 Radical Basic  Superficial
            123 Remorse Regret  Exult
            124 Repentance Regret  Satisfaction
            125 Riddle Puzzle  Solution
            126 Scatter Disperse  Gather
            127 Scanty Limited  Abundant
            128 Scold LimitedRebuke  Praise
            129 Slander Defame  Praise
            130 Solemn Pious  Impious
            131 Solitary Lonely  Popular
            132 Spiteful Malicious  Benign
            133 Stimulus Incentive  Hindrance
            134 Sublime Noble  Mean
            135 Systematic Methodical  Casual
            136 Terse Short  Lengthy
            137 Timid Shy  Brave
            138 Transparent Lucid  Obscure
            139 Treacherous Unfaithful  Faithful
            140 Transient Temporary  Permanent
            141 Tremble Vibrate  Steady
            142 Tyranny Oppression  Pity
            143 Unanimous Unison  Disagreement
            144 Vehement Earnest  Mild
            145 Versatile Clever  Dull
            146 Wavering Unsteady  Steady
            147 Yoke Link  Abandon
            148 Zeal Dedication  Apathy
            149 Zenith Top  Bottom

             

            One Word Substitution

            1. One who is out to subvert a government Anarchist
            2. One who is recovering from illness Convalescent
            3. One who is all powerful Omnipotent
            4. One who is present everywhere Omnipresent
            5. One who knows everything Omniscient
            6. One who is easily deceived Gullible
            7. One who does not make mistakes Infallible
            8. One who can do anything for money Mercenary
            9. One who has no money Pauper
            10. One who changes sides Turncoat
            11. One who works for free Volunteer
            12. One who loves books Bibliophile
            13. One who can speak two languages Bilingual
            14. One who loves mankind Philanthropist
            15. One who hates mankind Misanthrope
            16. One who looks on the bright side of things Optimist
            17. One who looks on the dark side of things Pessimist
            18. One who doubts the existence of god Agnostic
            19. One who pretends to be what he is not Hypocrite
            20. One incapable of being tired Indefatigable
            21. One who helps others Good Samaritan
            22. One who copies from other writers Plagiarist
            23. One who hates women Misogynist
            24. One who knows many languages Polyglot
            25. One who is fond of sensuous pleasures Epicure
            26. One who thinks only of himself Egoist
            27. One who thinks only of welfare of women Feminist.
            28. One who is indifferent to pleasure or pain Stoic
            29. One who is quite like a woman Effeminate
            30. One who has strange habits Eccentric
            31. One who speaks less Reticent
            32. One who goes on foot Pedestrian
            33. One who believes in fate Fatalist
            34. One who dies without a Will Intestate
            35. One who always thinks himself to be ill Valetudinarian
            36. A Government by the people Democracy
            37. A Government by a king or queen Monarchy
            38. A Government by the officials Bureaucracy
            39. A Government by the rich Plutocracy
            40. A Government by the few Oligarchy
            41. A Government by the Nobles Aristocracy
            42. A Government by one Autocracy
            43. Rule by the mob Mobocracy
            44. That through which light can pass Transparent
            45. That through which light cannot pass Opaque
            46. That through which light can partly pass Translucent
            47. A sentence whose meaning is unclear Ambiguous
            48. A place where orphans live Orphanage
            49. That which cannot be described Indescribable
            50. That which cannot be imitated Inimitable
            51. That which cannot be avoided Inevitable
            52. A position for which no salary is paid Honorary
            53. That which cannot be defended Indefensible
            54. Practice of having several wives Polygamy
            55. Practice of having several husbands Polyandry
            56. Practice of having one wife or husband Monogamy
            57. Practice of having two wives or husbands Bigamy
            58. That which is not likely to happen Improbable
            59. People living at the same time Contemporaries
            60. A book published after the death of its author Posthumas
            61. A book written by an unknown author Anonymous
            62. A life history written by oneself Autobiography
            63. A life history written by somebody else Biography
            64. People who work together Colleagues
            65. One who eats too much Glutton
            66. That which cannot be satisfied Insatiable
            67. One who questions everything Cynic
            68. A flesh eating animal Carnivorous
            69. A grass eating animal Herbivorous
            70. One who lives in a foreign country Immigrant
            71. To transfer one's authority to another Delegate
            72. One who is a newcomer Neophyte
            73. That which is lawful Legal
            74. That which is against law Illegal
            75. One who is unmarried Celibate
            76. A game in which no one wins Draw
            77. A study of man Anthropology
            78. A study of races Ethnology
            79. A study of the body Physiology
            80. A study of animals Zoology
            81. A study of birds Ornithology
            82. A study of ancient things Archaeology
            83. A study of derivation of words Etymology
            84. Murder of a human being Homicide
            85. Murder of a father Patricide
            86. Murder of a mother Matricide
            87. Murder of an brother Fratricide
            88. Murder of an infant Infanticide
            89. Murder of self Suicide
            90. Murder of the king Regicide
            91. To free somebody from all blame Exonerate
            92. To write under a different name Pseudonym
            93. A thing no longer in use Obsolete
            94. A handwriting that cannot be read Illegible
            95. Words written on the tomb of a person Epitaph
            96. One who is greedy for money Avaricious
            97. Something that cannot be imitated Inimitable
            98. One who doesn't know how to read and write Illiterate
            99. A person's peculiar habit Idiosyncrasy
            100. An animal who preys on other animals Predator
            101. Violating the sanctity of a church Sacrilege
            102. One who can throw his voice Ventriloquist

             

            Proper Usage of Tenses

            Rule 1

            If the principal clause is in the past tense, the subordinate clause should also be in the past tense.

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          I went and tour the country.
            Correct   :          I went and toured the country.

            However, the subordinate clause can be in the present tense if it denotes a universal truth.

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          The teacher told us that the sun rose in the east.
            Correct   :          The teacher told us that the sun rises in the east.

            Any tense can be used in the subordinate clause if it contains a comparison by using than 

            For Example :

            He desired you more than I desire you.

            Rule 2

            With conjunctions like if, when, until, unless, as soon as, the present indefinite tense is used. 

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          If you will not practice, you will not learn. 
            Correct   :          If you do not practice, you will not learn.

            Incorrect :          When my friend will come, I shall leave for home.
            Correct   :          When my friend comes, I shall leave for home.

            Incorrect :          As soon as the plane will land, I will rush to meet my father. 
            Correct   :          As soon as the plane lands, I will rush to meet my father.

            Incorrect :          Unless my brother will come, I will not go.
            Correct   :          Unless my brother comes, I will not go.

            Rule 3

            The past perfect tense shows an action completed in the past before another action began.

            For Example :

            I had gone to Bombay before I left for Calcutta.

            Mistakes are committed when the past perfect is used instead of simple past.

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          I had gone to see a film.
            Correct   :          I went to see a film.

            Incorrect :          I had gone to Bombay.
            Correct   :          I went to Bombay.

            The thing to remember is that :

            (i) the past perfect tense denotes two actions.

            (ii) the past perfect tense should be used with the earlier of the two actions.

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          I reached the station before the train had left.
            Correct   :          I had reached the station before the train left.

            Rule 4

            The verbs want, desire, wish, like, hate, seem, signify, hear & smell and forgive should not be used in the continuous form.

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          I am wanting to die.
            Correct   :          I want to die.

            Incorrect :          I am wishing for a windfall.
            Correct   :          I wish for a windfall.

            Incorrect :          I am smelling something fishy.
            Correct   :          I smell something fishy.

            Incorrect :          You should be forgiving him.
            Correct   :          You should forgive him.

            Rule 5

            With as if and as though, were is used in the present tense and had been in the past tense.

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          He boasts as if he is the king.
            Correct   :          He boasts as if he were the king.

            Incorrect :          He performed as though he were possessed.
            Correct   :          He performed as though he had been possessed.

            Proper Usage Of Adjectives

            Rule 1

            In comparing two things, the comparative degree should be used ; for more than two, superlative degree should be used.

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          He is the best of the two brothers.
            Correct   :          He is better of the two brothers.

            Incorrect :          Among the three friends, Rahim is better.
            Correct   :          Among the three friends, Rahim is the best.

            Rule 2

            The use of double comparatives and superlatives should be avoided.

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          Ram is more smarter than shyam.
            Correct   :          Ram is smarter than Shyam.

            Incorrect :          Julius Caesar was stabbed by Brutus, which was the most unkindest cut of all.
            Correct   :          Julius Caesar was stabbed by Brutus, which was the unkindest cut of all.

            Rule 3

            When a comparative is followed by than, just any or all should not be used, other should be added to these.

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          He is cruder than any man living..
            Correct   :          He is cruder than any other man living.

            Incorrect :          Birbal was wiser than any man living.
            Correct   :          Birbal was wiser than any other man living.

            Rule 4

            When the superlative degree is used, then other is avoided.

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          Birbal was the wisest of all other courtiers.
            Correct   :          Birbal was the wisest of all courtiers.

            Rule 5

            After the use of comparative like superior, inferior, prefer, preferable, junior, senior, posterior, anterior, prior, to should be used instead of than.

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          As a batsman, Jayasurya is superior than Tendulkar.
            Correct   :          As a batsman, Jayasurya is superior to Tendulkar.

            Incorrect :          Milk is preferable than tea
            Correct   :          Milk is preferable to tea.

            Incorrect :          The earth shook prior than the thunderstorm.
            Correct   :          The earth shook prior to the thunderstorm.

            Note Greater than or smaller than are often used incorrectly. Study the following examples carefully:

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          The area of U.P. is greater than Bihar
            Correct   :          The area of U.P. is greater than that of Bihar.

            Incorrect :          The population of India is smaller than China
            Correct   :          The population of India is smaller than that of China.

            Rule 6

            Some adjectives like perfect, universal, unique, chief, complete, entire, full etc. are considered to be superlative, so they do not take any comparatives. 

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          This is the most unique feature of the car.
            Correct   :          This is the unique feature of the car.

            Incorrect :          This belief is most universally accepted.
            Correct   :          This belief is universally accepted.

            Rule 7

            Few and a Few, Little and a little have different meanings.

            Few and Little are negative, meaning : not many or hardly any.

            A Few and A little are positive, meaning : some (though not much).

            For Example :

            I have lost little money in the stock exchange. (hardly any)

            I have lost a little money in the stock exchange (some) Both the sentences have different meanings.

            Similarly

            Few people believed what you said

            A few people believed what you said

            have different meanings.

            But "Little knowledge is a dangerous thing" is incorrect. It should be "A little knowledge is a dangerous thing".

            Rule 8                

            Less is used for quantity, and fewer in case of numbers. 

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          No less than twenty politicians have corruption cases registered against them.
            Correct   :          No fewer than twenty politicians have corruption cases registered against them.

            Incorrect :          We buy no fewer than three crates of cold drinks.
            Correct   :          We buy no less than three crates of cold drinks.

            Rule 9         

            Older and oldest may be used for persons and things, but elder and eldest are used only for persons, and that too usually of the same family. 

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          My oldest sister is still unmarried.
            Correct   :          My eldest sister is still unmarried.

            Incorrect :          Ram is elder than Shyam
            Correct   :          Ram is older than Shyam.

            Rule 10

            Any is used in negative sentences and some is used in affirmative sentences ; both any and some can be used in interrogative sentences.  

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          He did not give me something on my birthday.
            Correct   :          He did not give me anything on my birthday.

            Incorrect :          I told him to give any money to the beggar.
            Correct   :          I told him to give some money to the beggar.

            Rule 11

            Latest and last are often incorrectly used. 

            Latest is the superlative form of late meaning most recent.

            Last means final, or contrasted with first.

            For Example :

            Incorrect :          Do you know the last score ?
            Correct   :          Do you know the latest score ?

            Incorrect :          He missed the latest train
            Correct   :          He missed the last train. 

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