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Question Bank For Competitive Examination

Question Bank section familiarises you with multiple choice questions from various competitive examinations for government departments and educational institutes. This section has four topics in quiz format containing fifteen questions each with their answers. If you would like to have access to more such questions please write to us at editor@enableall.org.

Question Bank on Civics

Question Bank on History

Question Bank on General Science

Question Bank on Teaching Aptitude

Basic IT Skills

This introductory course begins by introducing a computer, and then it introduces the various hardware components of a personal computer system, including processor, monitor, keyboard, mouse, storage devices such as hard disks, and then it is followed by section two dedicated to windows, section three dedicated to basic word processing and section four deals with basic internet and email operations.

SECTION 1. Basic PC skills

CHAPTER 1. Introduction to computers

CHAPTER 2. Parts of a personal computer system

Proper English Usage

This tutorial provides an introduction to basic rules of correct grammatical usage and improving vocabulary. The tutorial is divided into two sections: Section one – Basic Rules and contains five chapters namely Noun and Pronoun, Verb, Agreement of the Verb with the Subject, Adjectives, and Tenses and Section Two – Vocabulary contains two chapters namely Synonym and Antonym, and One Word Substitution.

SECTION ONE: BASIC RULES

1. Nouns and Pronouns

2. Verbs

3. Agreement of the Verb with the Subject

4. Adjectives

5. Tenses

SECTION TWO : VOCABULARY

1. One Word Substitution

2. Synonym and Antonym

TEACHING APTITUDE

1. The mean score on any class test is the result of:

(a) dividing the sum of all scores by the number of scores

(b) determining the middle score when all the scores have been listed from the highest to the lowest

(c) determining the most frequent score

(d) Adding all the scores and dividing by the most frequent score

(e) Adding the highest and lowest scores and dividing by two

Answer to Question One

2. The least justifiable use of the results of a standardized reading test is to:

(a) identify areas of pupil deficiency

(b) evaluate the reading instruction programme

(c) Serve as a basis for report card marks

(d) Serve as the basis for a parent conference

(e) Serve as the basis for class groupings

Answer to Question Two

3. Fifteen –year old Arvind has taken to wearing the same style sweaters that her teacher wears. This form of behaviour is known as:

(a) compensation

(b) transference

(c) indentification

(d) regression

(e) egocentrism

Answer to Question Three

4. At least one third of the learning that will determine later levels of school achievement has already taken place by age six. This is a statement most closely associated with the writings of:

(a) Benjamin Bloom

(b) Margaret Mead

(c) Martin Mayer

(d) Fritiz Redl

(e) Nathan Glazer

Answer to Question Four

5. Of the following, the most unreliable predictor of educational achievement is:

(a) inherited biological potential for learning

(b) ethnic origin of parents

(c) family background and training

(d) classroom experiences

(e) self concept.

Answer to Question Five

6. All the following are acceptable goals for dealing with behaviour problems in the classroom, except:

(a) helping the child to improve his/her self-control

(b) being impersonal and objective

(c) understanding the offense

(d) utilizing appeals to children that have personal implications

(e) punishing, when necessary, in private

Answer to Question Six

7. In preparing a fifth grade class to take a standardized reading test the teacher is best advised to:

(a) tell the children the test is very important and they should do the best they can

(b) ditto key questions from a previous test and allow the pupils to answer them

(c) do nothing

(d) coach the below grade level readers, as the rest of the class will do well anyway.

(e) Give the pupils practice in answering questions similar to the type that will appear on the test.

Answer to Question Seven

8. Of the following, the one situation that will cause the greatest difficulty for a child in the initial stages of reading instruction is :

(a) confusion of left and right directionality

(b) possessing an IQ of 90

(c) having older siblings who are successful readers

(d) never having attended kindergarten

(e) being an avid television watcher

Answer to Question Eight

9. Of the following essentials of learning the one that takes procedure over the other is:

(a) average intelligence

(b) ability to read

(c) an intact home

(d) desire to learn

(e) a good teacher

Answer to Question Nine

10. A child from a disorganized home will experience the greatest difficulty with:

(a) well structured lessons

(b) independent study

(c) programmed instruction

(d) workbooks

(e) short answer tests.

Answer to Question Ten

11. The normal twelve –year –old child is most likely to:

(a) have difficulty with gross motor coordination

(b) have anxiety feelings about pleasing adults

(c) confine his/her interests to the here and now

(d) be eager for peer approval

(e) be concerned with boy-girl relationship

Answer to Question Eleven

12. During the first year of life a child’s height increases by about:

(a) 10 per cent

(b) 30 per cent

(c) 50 per cent

(d) 80 per cent

(e) 100 per cent

Answer to Question Twelve

13. The term ‘identical elements’ is closely associated with:

(a) group instruction

(b) transfer of learning

(c) jealousy between twins

(d) similar test questions.

(e) The scientific method

Answer to Question Thirteen

14. The statement least characteristic of first grade children is that they are:

(a) too young to be taught classroom routines

(b) not yet concerned with group approval

(c) very concerned with adult approval

(d) not concerned with neatness

(e) curious and exploratory.

Answer to Question Fourteen

15. Of the following items in a pupil’s cumulative folder, the one that is least appropriate is:

(a) “Height 1977-40 in ; 1978-42 in”

(b) “WISE: 1977 V 96, P 92, FS 95”

(c) “10-12-77 – during a match test, asked to leave room; 10-19 same; 11-3 sam(e)”

(d) “Is an emotionally disturbed child”

(e) "Parents separated 1975 lives with father”

Answer to Question Fifteen

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Answers to above Questions:

1. (A) dividing the sum of all scores by the number of scores

Back to Question One Next Question

2. (C) sp;Serve as a basis for report card marks

Back to Question Two Next Question

3. (C) sp;indentification

Back to Question Three Next Question

4. (A) Benjamin Bloom

Back to Question Four Next Question

5. (B) sp;ethnic origin of parents

Back to Question Five Next Question

6. (D) sp;utilizing appeals to children that have personal implications

Back to Question Six Next Question

7. (E) sp;Give the pupils practice in answering questions similar to the type that will appear on the test.

Back to Question Seven Next Question

8. (A) sp;confusion of left and right directionality

Back to Question Eight Next Question

9. (D) sp;desire to learn

Back to Question Nine Next Question

10. (B) sp;independent study

Back to Question Ten Next Question

11. (D) sp;be eager for peer approval

Back to Question Eleven Next Question

12. (C ) sp;50 per cent

Back to Question Twelve Next Question

13. (B) sp;transfer of learning

Back to Question Thirteen Next Question

14. (A) sp;too young to be taught classroom routines

Back to Question Fourteen Next Question

15. (D) sp;“Is an emotionally disturbed child”

Back to Question Fifteen

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GENERAL SCIENCE

1. The Zygote

(a) develops from a single parent

(b) union of male and female gametes

(c) is found only in unicellular organisms

(d) none of the above

Answer to Question One

2. The Process of the formation of three germ layers starts from.

(a) blastula

(b) gastrula

(c) morula

(d) none of the above

Answer to Question Two

3. The term gametogeneis is used for the formation and differentiation of alls

(a) sperms

(b) ova

(c) gametes

(d) none of the above

Answer to Question Three

4. Which of the primary germ layers give rise to the spinal card.

(a) endoderm

(b) ectoderm

(c) mesoderm

(d) none of the above

Answer to Question Four

5. In all mammals in adult stage, R B cells are without nucleus except one animal The name of this animal is :-

(a) whale

(b) elephant

(c) monkey

(d) camel

Answer to Question Five

6. The destruction of red cells is called-

(a) erythropoilsis

(b) plasmolysis

(c) hemolysis

(d) hemopiesis

Answer to Question Six

7. The blood does not wagulate inside our body because of-

(a) heparin in blood

(b) sodium chloride in blood

(c) movement of blood

(d) sodium oxalate in blood

Answer to Question Seven

8. The largest artery in the body is-

(a) capillary

(b) venacava

(c) artery

(d) aorta

Answer to Question Eight

9. The Pitutary gland effects the urine formation through-

(a) ACTS

(b) ADH

(c) ADDH

(d) ATH

Answer to Question Nine

10.Which of the following is both an endocrine gland and exocrine gland-

(a) pituitary

(b) thyroid

(c) adrenal

(d) pancreas

Answer to Question Ten

11. Deficiency of the adrenal cortex activity leads to-

(a) cushing disease

(b) conn’s disease

(c) addison disease

(d) simmond’s disease

Answer to Question Eleven

12. The haversian system is present in

(a) muscle cell

(b) nerve tissue

(c) bone (mammaltion)

(d) larynx

Answer to Question Twelve

13. Enrage is transferred from the light reactron step to the dark reactron step by-

(a) chlorophyll

(b) ADP

(c) ATP

(d) RUBP

Answer to Question Thirteen

14. A cell that lacks chloroplast does not-

(a) evolve carbon dioxide

(b) liberate oxygen

(c) require water

(d) utilize carbohydrates

Answer to Question Fourteen

15. The mineral constituent of the cell wall is-

(a) iron

(b) magnesium

(c) potassium

(d) calcium

Answer to Question Fifteen

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Answers:

1. (b) union of male and female gametes

Back to Question One Next Question

2. (b) blastula

Back to Question Two Next Question

3. (b) ova

Back to Question Three Next Question

4. (b) ectoderm

Back to Question Four Next Question

5 (d) camel

Back to Question Five Next Question

6. (c) hemolysis

Back to Question Six Next Question

7. (a) heparin in blood

Back to Question Seven Next Question

8. (d) aorta

Back to Question Eight Next Question

9. (b)ADH

Back to Question Nine Next Question

10. (d) pancreas

Back to Question Ten Next Question

11. (c) addison disease

Back to Question Eleven Next Question

12. (c) bone (mammaltion)

Back to Question Twelve Next Question

13. (a) chlorophyll

Back to Question Thirteen Next Question

14. (b) liberate oxygen

Back to Question Fourteen Next Question

15. (a) iron

Back to Question Fifteen

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History

1.   Men of the modern type – Home Sapiens appeared in the

(a) Pleistocene Period

(b) Upper Paleolithic Period

(c) Middle Paleolithic Period

(d) Lower Paleolithic Period

Answer to Question One

2. Indus Valley civilization was spread over

(a) Punjab, Sind,

(b) Punjab, Sind, Rajasthan, Gujarat

(c) Along river Indus

(d) Sind, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, U. P, Rajasthan, Gujarat

Answer to Question Two

3. The Indus Valley civilization specialized in

(a) town planning

(b) architecture

(c) craftsmanship

(d) all there

Answer to Question Three

4. The Rig Veda contains

(a) rituals to be adopted by people

(b) hymns in honour of the gods

(c) yagna to be performed

(d) history of the Vedic period

Answer to Question Four

5. The Saka era was started by

(a) Ashoka

(b) Chandregupta II

(c) Kanishka

(d) Harsha

Answer to Question Five

6. 4Tripitakas are the sacred books of the

(a) Jains

(b) Hindus

(c) Muslims

(d) Buddhists

Answer to Question Six

7. The title “Vikramaditiya” was assumed by

(a) Ashoka

(b) Chandragupta -II

(c) Kanishka

(d) Samudragupta

Answer to Question Seven

8. The finest specimens of Pallava architecture are

(a) Temples of Madurai

(b) Temple of Tanjore

(c) Rock –cut Temples at Mahabalipuram

(d) Kailashnath Temple of Ellora

Answer to Question Eight

9. Megasthenes visited India during the reign of

(a) Chandragupta II

(b) Chandragupta Maurya

(c) Ashoka

(d) Harsha

Answer to Question Nine

10. Kanishka patronized

(a) Mahayana Buddhism

(b) Hinayana Buddhism

(c) Buddhism

(d) Bhahgvatism

Answer to Question Ten

11.  Language of the Sangam Literature was

(a) Sanskrit

(b) Pali

(c) Prakrit

(d) Tamil

Answer to Question Eleven

12. Muhammad Ghori was defeated by Prithiviraj Chauhan in the battle of

(a) Tarain

(b) Panipat

(c) Thaneswar

(d) Chandawar

Answer to Question Twelve

13. The remains of the Vijayanagar empire can be found in

(a) Bijapur

(b) Golconda

(c) Hampi

(d) Baroda

Answer to Question Thirteen

14. Whose region has been called the “Golden age of the Mughals” ?

(a) Shah Jahan

(b) Akbar

(c) Jahangir

(d) Aurangazeb

Answer to Question Fourteen

15.  Painting in the Mughal period was at its prime during the reign of

(a) Jehangir

(b) Shahjahan

(c) Aurangazeb

(d) Akbar

Answer to Question Fifteen

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Answers

1. (b) Upper Paleolithic Period

Back to Question One Next Question

2. (a) Punjab, Sind,

Back to Question Two Next Question

3. (d) all there

Back to Question Three Next Question

4. (b) hymns in honour of the gods

Back to Question Four Next Question

5. (c) Kanishka

Back to Question Five Next Question

6. (d) Buddhists

Back to Question Six Next Question

7. (b) Chandragupta -II

Back to Question Seven Next Question

8. (c) Rock –cut Temples at Mahabalipuram

Back to Question Eight Next Question

9. (b) Chandragupta Maurya

Back to Question Nine Next Question

10. (a) Mahayana Buddhism

Back to Question Ten Next Question

11. (d) Tamil

Back to Question Eleven Next Question

12. (a) Tarain

Back to Question Twelve Next Question

13. (c) Hampi

Back to Question Thirteen Next Question

14. (a) Shah Jahan

Back to Question Fourteen Next Question

15. (a) Jehangir

Back to Question Fifteen

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Civics

1. The Constituent Assembly elected as its permanent chairman:

(a) Jawaharlal Nehru

(b) Rajendra Prasad

(c) B. R. Ambedkar

(d) K.M. Munshi

Answer to Question One

2.Who was Chairman of the Drafting committee which drafted the Constitution ?

(a) B.R.Ambedkar

(b) Jawaharlal Nehru

(c) Rajendra Prasad

(d) C.R. Rajagopalachari

Answer to Question Two

3.The Constitution of India was adopted on:

(a) January 26,1950

(b) January 26,1949

(c) November26, 1949

(d) December31,1949

Answer to Question Three

4.The Constitution of India came into force on:

(a) January 26, 1950

(b) January 26, 1952

(c) August 16, 1948

(d) November 26, 1949

Answer to Question Four

5.The Constitution of India contains:

(a) 295 Articles

(b) over 400 Articles

(c) 259 Articles

(d) 301 Articles

Answer to Question Five

6.The Constitution of India contains:

(a) nine Schedules

(b) eight Schedules

(c) twelve Schedules

(d) ten Schedules

Answer to Question Six

7. The Constitution of India describes India as:

(a) a 'union of states'

(b) 'quasi-federal'

(c) a federation of states and union territories

(d) a unitary state

Answer to Question Seven

8.The Preamble was amended by the:

(a) 24th Amendment

(b) 42nd Amendment

(c) 44th Amendment

(d) none of these amendments

Answer to Question Eight

9. The Constitution of India

(a) provides single citizenship

(b) provides double citizenship

(c) contains no provisions regarding citizenship

(d) provides multiple citizenship

Answer to Question Nine

10. Which of the following is not a condition for becoming a citizen of India:

(a) citizen ship by birth

(b) citizenship by descent

(c) citizenship by acquiring property

(d) citizenship by   naturalization

Answer to Question Ten

11. A person can lose citizenship through

(a) termination

(b) renunciation

(c) deprivation

(d) all of these

Answer to Question Eleven

12. The Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizens are contained in

(a) Part 111 of the Constitution

(b) Part 1V of the Constitution

(c) the seventh Schedule of the Constitution

(d) none of these

Answer to Question Twelve

13.  Article 25 of the Indian Constitution provides for facilities regarding

(a) education

(b) sports

(c) religion

(d) defence

Answer to Question Thirteen

14. Which of the following has ceased to be a Fundamental Right in the Indian Constitution?

(a) right to freedom of speech

(b) right to form educational institutions

(c) right to property

(d) right to constitutional remedies

Answer to Question Fourteen

15.The right to private property was dropped from the list of Fundamental Rights by the (a) 24th Amendment

(b) 42nd Amendment

(c) 44th Amendment

(d) none of these

Answer to Question Fifteen

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Answers:

1. (b) Rajendra Prasad

Back to Question One Next Question

2. (a) B.R.Ambedkar

Back to Question Two Next Question

3. (c) November26, 1949

Back to Question Three Next Question

4. (a) January 26, 1950

Back to Question FourNext Question

5. (b) over 400 Articles

Back to Question Five Next Question

6. (c) twelve Schedules

Back to Question Six Next Question

7. (a) a 'union of states'

Back to Question Seven Next Question

8. (b) 42nd Amendment

Back to Question Eight Next Question

9. (a) provides single citizenship

Back to Question Nine Next Question

10. (c) citizenship by acquiring property

Back to Question Ten Next Question

11. (d) all of these

Back to Question Eleven Next Question

12. (a) Part 111 of the Constitution

Back to Question Twelve Next Question

13. (c) religion

Back to Question Thirteen Next Question

14. (c) right to property

Back to Question Fourteen Next Question

15. (c) 44th Amendment

Back to Question Fifteen

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SECTION FOUR: BASIC INTERNET AND EMAIL OPERATIONS

SECTION FOUR CHAPTER ONE OUTLINE

4. Learning Internet and email operations

1 Introduction to Internet and email

2 Accessing the Net

3 Emails

SECTION 4: LEARNING INTERNET AND EMAIL OPERATIONS

Section Objective: Ability to conduct basic operations required to use Internet and email independently

The way Internet has evolved over the years, makes it difficult for us to believe that it was created to allow data transfer and communications in case of a nuclear attack on US or a big disaster. Internet has come a long way from a restricted-use network created for such a special purpose. People today communicate with friends, family and business contacts, participate in community activities developed around their interest areas, shop, bank, study, entertain themselves, and research using the Internet. It is therefore becoming essential for people to learn how to use Internet and email.

SECTION THREE: BASIC WORD PROCESSING

SECTION THREE CHAPTER OUTLINE

3.Using Notepad

1. Starting Notepad

2. Components of a notepad window

3. Entering text in notepad

4. Editing text in notepad

5. Saving a notepad document

6. Closing a notepad document

7. Other notepad operations

SECTION 3: BASIC WORD PROCESSING

Section Objective: To make students familiar with the operations required for basic word processing

In this section, we will learn operations required for basic word processing. Word processing helps in increasing your productivity. It allows you to create electronic documents such as memos, letters, and reports. These documents help are easy to edit and transfer.

CHAPTER 3. USING NOTEPAD Chapter Objective: Make the students familiar with notepad program

Notepad program offers only such features, as are essential for simple word processing requirements. Its output is more like that of a typewriter, so you can write a letter, document, report etc. in this program but you cannot make a table or include a graphic in it. Some of the basic operations are explained in the following text.

TOPIC 3.1: Starting Notepad

We have learnt how to start the notepad program in Chapter 2.2. However, we will revise the steps again here.

1. Press the Start button to open the Start menu.

2. Use the arrow direction keys to reach to Programs option. You can also press 'P' key on the keyboard to reach Programs.

3. When you are at Programs, press Enter, to open the Programs sub-menu. This sub-menu lists all the programs and program folder in the computer.

4. On the Programs sub-menu, the first option is 'Accessories' which will appear pre-selected. Press Enter key again. This will open the Accessories sub-menu with a listing of programs and program folders.

5. On the Accessories sub-menu, either use the direction key to move down to Notepad and press Enter, or simply press 'N'. This will launch the Notepad program in a new window.

6. If you have been working in an existing notepad file and you want to create a new document, then you can press Alt key and F key to open the File menu drop down. Here use the down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'New' and press Enter. This will open a new notepad document.

Back to Chapter Outline

TOPIC 3.2: Components of a notepad window

The notepad window consists of the following components:

2.1 Title bar - This is the top most part of the notepad window. It is a thin rectangular strip that displays the name of the opened notepad document on the left-hand corner. For example, when we open a notepad program from the start menu, the title bar will display 'Untitled - Notepad' on the left-hand corner.

On the right-hand corner of the title bar, the three buttons - Minimize, Maximize, and Close - are displayed.

2.2 Menu bar - This is a horizontal row of for command options, and is located just below the title bar. These command options are File, Edit, Search and Help. The menu bar is accessed by pressing the Alt key. This takes the cursor to the File menu option. To access the various command options inside File menu, press Enter key. To access other command options, press the right arrow direction key.

2.3 Content Pane - This occupies the maximum space of a window. The user performs all tasks in this pane.

Back to Chapter Outline

TOPIC 3.3: Entering Text in notepad

As soon as the notepad program is launched, the cursor will start blinking on the top left- hand corner in the content pane. You can start typing in text from your keyboard. As you type, the cursor will advance on the screen, displaying the exact point where the next character will be placed. When the text entered reaches the right edge of the notepad window, the cursor is automatically moved to the next line. This process is called word wrap. You should know about the following points about entering text:

1. In a new document, if you start typing the text will start appearing from the top left-hand corner of the notepad document.

2. You may want to leave some margin on the left-hand side, for example for text that follows a heading. Leaving margin from left is called indentation. You can do this by pressing tab. This leaves a margin of an inch. If you press again, the cursor will shift another inch and so on.

3. To begin a new paragraph, press Enter and the cursor will be placed at the beginning of a new line. If you want to keep some space between two paragraphs, press Enter twice.

4. To type a single character or few characters in upper case (Capital letters), then press Shift key down, while you type the characters that have to appear in upper case. Release the Shift key, to resume writing in lower case (small letters).

5. If you want to type a lot of text in upper case (capital letters), press the Caps Lock once. After this all text will appear in Upper case. Press the Caps Lock once again, to resume writing in upper case.

6. To go to the beginning of a line of text, press Home key once.

7. To go to the end of a line of text, press End key once.

8. To go to the beginning of the whole document, press Control key and then Home key.

9. To go to the end of the whole document, press Control key and then End key.

10. If you want to reach words or text somewhere in the middle of the line, you may either use the left and right arrow keys to move character by character. To move word by word, press down the control, while you press the left or right arrow key.

11. The text that appears on the screen is written in a particular style. Just like people have different styles of handwriting, similarly there are different types of electronic text and these different types are called Fonts. Different fonts are used for different purposes. Notepad comes with a pre-set type, style and size of font. The most popular font types are Times New Roman, Arial and Verdana, You may change the pre-set or default font by following the instructions given below:

A. If you want to change the font in a new document:

1. Press Alt key and E key to open the Edit menu drop down.

2. Use the down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'Set Font' and press Enter.

3. This will open the font dialog box. It has three selections.

  • The first one is labeled Font and it refers to the type of font, for example Arial and Verdana are different types of fonts.
  • The next selection is style which refers to the way the selected font should appear. There are four choices, namely regular which means normal upright style, italics which means with a slight tilt towards right, bold means a stronger imprint, and bold italics which means a stronger imprint with a slight right tilt.
  • The last selection is labeled size and it refers to the size of the font.
4. When the Font dialog box opens, the cursor is placed in the Font selection option. Use the up or down arrow direction keys to reach the font you wish to select.

5. After you have selected the Font type, press Tab key. This will place the cursor in the Style selection. Use the up or down arrow direction keys to reach the style you wish to select.

6. After you have selected the Font style, press Tab key. This will place the cursor in the Size selection. Use the up or down arrow direction keys to reach the font size you wish to select.

7. After you have selected the Font size, press Tab key. This will place the cursor on the OK button. Press Enter to complete the selection process.

B. If you want to change the font after you've typed some text or in an existing notepad document.

1. Press Alt key and E key to open the Edit menu drop down.

2. Use the down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'Select All' and press Enter.

3. This will select all the text in the document. To change the font type, style or size, follow the steps described above.

Back to Chapter Outline

TOPIC 3.4:  Editing Text in notepad

If you were using a typewriter, you need to make a fresh copy to make any changes to already printed text. However, word processors allow any number of changes to already typed text. Some important editing operations are as follows:

1. Deleting text a character at a time: To start deleting characters, move the cursor to the character you want to start deleting. You can delete text each character at a time by pressing delete key or backspace key. Delete key will erase one character at a time as the cursor moves from left to right. Backspace key will delete one character at a time as the cursor moves from right to left.

2. Deleting text a word at a time: To delete text a word at a time, press down control key and then use the delete key to delete words from left to right; or press down control key and then use backspace key to delete words from right to left.

3. Deleting text a block of text: If there is a lot of text to be deleted the faster way is to select the text to be deleted and then press delete key.

4. Selecting text: You can select one character at each press of key, one word at a time or complete lines. When you select text, it is highlighted on the screen.

  • To select one character at a time, press shift key and then press right arrow direction key to begin selecting characters from left to right or press left arrow direction key to begin selecting characters from right to left.
  • To select one word at a time, press shift key, control key and then press right arrow direction key to begin selecting words from left to right or press left arrow direction key to begin selecting words from right to left.
  • To select a single line, press shift key and End key if you are at the beginning of the line, or press shift key and Home key if you are at the end of the line.
  • You can continue selecting more lines after selecting one line, by holding down the shift key and then using the up or down arrow key depending upon which direction you want to make the selection.
  • If you have selected text, and then you press any of the following keys:
          a. Number keys, b. Alphabet keys, c. Punctuation keys, d. Tab Key e. Space bar, f. Back space, g. Enter, h. Insert, or i. Delete

Then the selected text will be replaced by the operation represented by these key that was pressed.

  • To deselect, selected text press any arrow key or page up, page down keys.
5. Cut Text: This operation is required when you want to remove text from one place in your document and place it to another place. Cut operation allows you to remove the text. To cut text, select the text that you want to cut. Then, Press Alt key and then E key, to open the Edit menu drop-down. Now, use the down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled Cut and press enter. The selected text will be removed. You can also cut the selected text by pressing Control key and X key.

6. Copying Text: This operation is required when you want to use the same text in many places. You can copy text from a document and place it within the same document at many places or in other documents at any number of places. To copy, select the text that you want to copy. Then, Press Alt key and then E key, to open the Edit menu drop-down. Now, use the down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled Copy and press enter. The selected text will be copied by the computer. You can also copy the selected text by pressing Control key and C key.

7. Pasting Text: Any text that you have cut or copied, can be pasted anywhere in the same document or any other document. To paste text, place the cursor at the place where you want to place the copied or cut text. Then, Press Alt key and then E key, to open the Edit menu drop-down. Now, use the down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled Paste and press enter. The cut or copied text will be pasted at the place where the cursor was positioned. You can also paste text by pressing Control key and V key.

8. Undo: This operation helps in reversing any operation conducted by you, by one step. For example, if you have deleted a large block of selected text by mistake, then you can reverse this operation. To undo a previous operation, press Alt key and then E key, to open the Edit menu drop-down. Now, use the down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled Undo and press enter. Alternatively, you can press Control key and Z key to conduct the undo operation.

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TOPIC 3.5: Saving a notepad document

Whenever you have done some work in any document, you need to perform a function called Save. This is a command to tell the computer that you want to retain all the work done in the document. Till the time you give save command, computer keeps all your work in a temporary file, and if you do not save your work, it will be lost from computer's memory. A good practice is to keep saving your work every 5 to 10 minutes so that there is no loss of work due to any thing going wrong. Otherwise, when you close the document the program will ask you whether you want to save the work.

A. To save work done in a new document

If you have started working in a new document, then whenever you want to save, press Alt key and F key to open the File menu drop down. Use down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'Save' and press Enter. This will open 'Save As' dialog box. In the Save As dialog box use the tab key to reach 'Save in' field. Here use the arrow direction keys to select the drive in which you want to save the new file. Press Tab again to reach the Contents box where all the folders under the selected drive are listed. In the contents box, use the arrow keys to select the folder in which you want to save the new file and press Enter. This will list all the sub-folders under the selected folder. You can select any sub-folder and press-enter to go inside it till you reach the folder in which you want to save the document. Once you have selected the folder, press Tab once again to reach the 'File Name' field. Here type the name you want to give to your document. Press Tab two times to reach the Save button and then press Enter. Your file will be saved in the name provided by you and in the folder specified by you.

An alternative way is to do all your work in the new document and then press Alt key and F key to open the File menu drop down. Use down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'Exit' and press Enter. There will be a confirmation dialog with the message that the text in the file has changed, and whether you would want to save the changes. There will be three buttons Yes, No or Cancel. Press Enter on Yes. This will open the Save As dialog box. The steps after this are the same as described above.

B. To save work done in an existing document

If you are working in an existing file or in a file that you have already saved, then to save your work press Alt key and F key to open the File menu drop down. Use down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'Save' and press Enter. This will save the work done by you in the opened file. If you work in the file after this and then close the file, there will be a confirmation dialog with the message that the text in the file has changed, and whether you would want to save the changes. There will be three buttons Yes, No or Cancel. Press Enter on Yes.

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TOPIC 3.6: Closing a notepad document

To close a notepad document, press Alt key and F key to open the File menu drop down. Use down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'Exit' and press Enter. If you have not done any changes in the document, the file will be closed. If you have made changes to the document, there will be a confirmation dialog with the message that the text in the file has changed, and whether you would want to save the changes. There will be three buttons Yes, No or Cancel. If you press Enter on Yes button, the changes will be saved. If you press Enter on No button, the file will be closed without saving the changes in the file. If you press Cancel, the file will remain open with the changes, but these changes will not be saved.

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TOPIC 3.7: Other notepad operations

There are some other notepad operations that you should know. These are as follows:

A. Opening an existing notepad document

To open an existing notepad document, press Alt key and F key to open the File menu drop down. Use down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'Open' and press Enter. This will open the 'Open' dialog box. This is similar to the Save as dialog box. In the Open dialog box use the tab key to reach 'Look in' field. Here use the arrow direction keys to select the drive from which you want to open the notepad file. Press Tab again to reach the Contents box where all the folders under the selected drive are listed. In the contents box, use the arrow keys to select the folder from which you want to open the notepad file and press Enter. This will list all the sub-folders under the selected folder. You can select any sub-folder and press-enter to go inside it till you reach the folder from which you want to open the notepad file. Once you have selected the folder, use the direction keys to reach the file you want to open. Press Tab once again to reach the 'File Name' field. Here the name of the selected file will appear. Press Tab two times to reach the Open button and then press Enter. The selected file will be opened.

B. Making a copy of the notepad document

You can make a copy of the notepad document from the File menu drop-down. Press Alt key and F key to open the File menu drop down. Use down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'Save As' and press Enter. This will open the Save As dialog box and the steps to make a copy are same as described above for saving a new file. The only point to keep in mind is that when you are entering the name of the file, make sure that another text file does not exist with the same name in the same folder.

C. Selecting the complete document text

If you want to select the complete text in the document, press Alt key and E key to open the Edit menu drop down. Use down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'Select All' and press Enter. This will select the complete text in the document.

D. Time and Date

To print the current date and time, in the document press Alt key and E key to open the Edit menu drop down. Use down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'Time/Date' and press Enter. This will print the current date and time, wherever the cursor is placed in the document. An alternative method is to just press F5 key on the keyboard and the current date and time will be printed in the document.

E. Searching text in a notepad file

If you want to search a word or phrase in a document, press F3. This will open Find dialog box. This dialog box consists of;

  • Find what
  • Match Case
  • text field. In this field, you have to type or paste the word or phrase that you are looking for. - It means that the text to be searched will be matched exactly to the case typed in the Find What text box. For example, if you have typed the word or phrase in upper case (All caps) then the search results will consider the same words in upper case only. It will ignore any occurrence of the words or phrase in lower case. Similarly, if you have written the word to be searched in Title case, that is, the first character in upper case, and the rest of the characters in lower case; then the computer will be looking for the same word in only Title case.
(Match case appears as a selection box. You can reach it by using the Tab key. To make the selection, press the space bar once. To deselect it, press the space bar again.)
  • Direction -
  • This refers to the direction in which the search will be conducted. There are two options up, or down. So, if the cursor is say in the middle of the document and you choose up direction, then search will be conducted in the text between the middle and the beginning of the document.
(You can reach direction options by using Tab key. Down option will be pre-selected. You can change the option by using arrow direction keys. )
  • Buttons -
  • There are two buttons, Find Next and Cancel. Cancel will close the Find dialog box. Find Next will start the search on the word or phrase typed by you in 'Find What' field. The search will stop as soon as the first match is found. To conduct another search with the same word, press Enter. When you have completed the search press Tab to reach Cancel button and press Enter.

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Topic Exercises

1. Open a new notepad file, save it in Your hard drive and give it the name Notepad 1.

2. Enter two paragraphs of text in Notepad 1 and close it after saving changes.

3. Open another new notepad file, save it in Your hard drive and give it the name Notepad 2. Now copy the text written in Notepad 1 and paste it in Notepad 2.

4. In Notepad 2, select the last line of the first paragraph and delete it. Cut the first line of the first paragraph and paste it at the end of the document.

5. Select a word in Notepad 2 and search it in both documents.

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User Tip

Untitled

Untitled means that the newly created document has not been stored in the computer yet. The document is still in computer's temporary memory. To shift the document from temporary memory to the storage memory in hard disk, you have to perform the save function.

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Word Wrap

Whenever you open an existing document, ensure that this option is selected. To select this option press Alt key and E key to open the Edit menu drop down. Use down arrow direction key to reach the option labeled 'Word Wrap' and press Enter.

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SECTION TWO: BASIC WINDOWS

SECTION TWO CHAPTER FOUR OUTLINE

 Managing Files and folders

        1. Creating Folders and Sub-Folders

        2. Copying files or folders

        3. Renaming a file or folder

        4. Moving a file or folder

        5. Deleting a file/folder

        6. Creating Shortcut

CHAPTER 2.4: Managing Files and Folders

Chapter Objective: Proficiency in conducting various operations related to file management and organisation

We have learnt how to create new files and folders. However, it is important to learn certain file management operations, in order to be more organised. Organising your files and folders allows faster access and reduces confusion regarding the location of your document and program files.

Now we will learn select essential file management operations.

TOPIC 2.4.1: Creating Folders and Sub-Folders

Just like physical documents are kept inside physical files or folders, electronic documents and files also need to be kept into folders for better organisation. Windows allows you to create a create a hierarchy of folders, that is, within one folder you can create many folders, which are called its sub-folders. Lets assume that you want to keep all your work documents in one place and all your personal documents in another separate place. So, you will create two folders and name them, Work and Personal. Now suppose, within your work folder there are many documents, and you want to organise each type of document into their own separate places. So, within the Work folder you will create many sub-folders, such as Leave Record, Salary, Project A, Project B, Memos, etc. You can make sub-folders within each of these newly created folders, for example within the Leave Record folder you may create sub-folders named Jan, Feb, Mar, and so on. Thus, the level of folders that you will need to create, depends on how much organisation you want to do.

We will now learn how to create a folder, taking the example discussed above. We will create the folder and sub-folders in C:

1. Open windows explorer.

2. Since you are in the Folders pane, use the down arrow direction key to go to C:

3. After reaching C:, press Alt key and F key to open the File menu drop-down. In this drop-down the first option is 'New'. It appears pre-selected. Press Enter.

4. A sub-menu appears with many options. The first option in this sub-menu is 'Folder'. It appears pre-selected. Press Enter.

5. A new folder will be created in C:. This will appear in the contents pane of the Windows Explorer. The cursor will blink in the area where the folder name will appear. Type 'Work' as the folder name and press Enter.

6. Now use Tab key, to reach the folders pane again. After reaching the folders pane, go to C: and create another new folder. Name this folder as 'Personal'.

7. Since, you are still in the contents pane use the arrow direction keys to reach the folder named 'Work'. After reaching this folder, press enter. This will open the 'Work' folder.

8. Now to create a sub-folder, follow the same steps as are required to create a new folder. That is, Press Alt key and F key to open the open the File menu drop-down. In this drop-down the first option is 'New'. It appears pre-selected. Press Enter. A sub-menu appears with many options. The first option in this sub-menu is 'Folder'. It appears pre-selected. Press Enter. Name this folder Leave Record.

9. So, now you have a sub-folder named leave record under the folder Work. Create more sub-folders named Salary, Project A, Memos in the same way.

10. To create sub-folders under the folder leave record, follow the same steps as are required to create a new folder. Name these sub-folders Jan, Feb, Mar.

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TOPIC 2.4.2: Copying Files and Folders

You can create copies of files and folders. This operation is required when you want to keep a record of the same file or folder in two different places, or if you want to keep the same file or folder in two different folders. Sometimes, you may want to make changes in an existing file, but you want to keep the original copy as well. In such cases, create a copy of the existing file and then work in it.

To make a copy of a file, follow the instructions given below. For the purpose of illustration, we will make a copy of Testing one notepad file that you created in the My Documents folder.

1. Open the Windows Explorer.

2. Since you are in the Folders pane, use the down arrow direction key to go to My Documents folder.

3. After reaching the My Documents folder, press enter. Now press the Tab key once to go to the contents pane.

4. Use the arrow keys to reach 'Testing One' document. Once you reach this document, press Alt key and E key to open the Edit menu drop-down. In this drop down, there are many options. Use the down arrow key to reach the option named 'copy' and then press Enter.

User Tip

5. The computer has made a copy of the document, but it doesn't know where to show this copy to you. So, say you wanted to make the copy within the My Documents folder. Now press Alt key and E key again to open the Edit menu drop-down. Use the down arrow key to reach the option named 'Paste' and then press Enter.

User Tip

6. This will show the copy of your document in the My Documents folder. It will be named 'Copy of Testing One'.

User Tip

7. To take a copy of the same file in a floppy disk. Take a blank floppy and put it in the floppy drive.

8. Now open the windows explorer and follow the steps discussed above to make a copy of Testing One. After you have copied the file, use the tab key to go to the folders pane.

9. In the folders pane, use the arrow direction keys to reach 31/2 Floppy (A:). Once you reach A:, Now press Alt key and E key again to open the Edit menu drop-down. Use the down arrow key to reach the option named 'Paste' and then press Enter. A copy of Testing One, will be made with the same name, in the floppy.

User Tip

10. The process to create copies of folders is the same as that for creating the copy of a file.

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TOPIC 2.4.3: Renaming a File or Folder

You may want to change the name of a file or folder, especially after you have pasted a copy of a file or folder. To rename a file follow the instructions given below. For the purpose of illustration, we will rename the file named 'Copy of Testing One':

1. Open Windows explorer. Go to My Documents by using direction keys.

2. Press Tab key once, to reach contents pane. In the contents pane, use the down arrow direction keys to reach the file named 'Copy of Testing One'.

3. Now press Alt key and F key to open File menu drop-down. In this drop down, use the down arrow direction key to reach the option named 'Rename'.

4. The cursor will start blinking in the area where the file name has to be changed. Now just type a new name for the file, say Testing Three, and press Enter.

5. The steps to rename a folder are same as those for renaming a file.

User Tip

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TOPIC 2.4.4: Moving a file

Shifting files or folders from one place to another is an important file management operation. There are various methods of moving files and folders, you may copy a file or folder and paste it at another location, and then delete the original copy. We will learn the alternate method of this operation. For the purpose of illustration, we will shift Testing Three from My Documents. Follow the instructions given below:

1. Open Windows explorer. Use the down arrow direction keys to reach My Documents.

2. Press Tab key once, to reach contents pane. In the contents pane, use the down arrow direction keys to reach the file named 'Testing One'.

3. Now press Alt key and E key to open Edit menu drop-down. In this drop down, use the down arrow direction key to reach the option named 'Cut'.

User Tip

4. Now use the tab key to go to the folders pane. Once you are in the folders pane, use the right arrow direction keys to open the sub-folder tree under C:. Now use the down arrow direction key to reach the 'Personal' folder created by you.

5. On reaching the 'Personal' folder, press control key and V key to paste the cut file in Personal folder. This file will be removed from My documents folder.

6. The steps required to move a folder are same as those required for moving files.

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TOPIC 2.4.5: Deleting a file or folder

To delete a file or folder, follow the instructions given below. For the purpose of illustration, we will delete the Work folder created by you.

1. Open Windows explorer. Use the down arrow direction keys to reach C:.

2. Use the right arrow direction keys to open the sub-folder tree under C:. Now use the down arrow direction key to reach the 'Work' folder created by you.

3. Once you have reached the 'Work' folder, press delete key. There will be a confirmation box asking you if you are sure to remove the folder and all its contents to the recycle bin. There will be two buttons Yes and No. Press Enter on Yes.

User Tip

4. The Work folder will be deleted from C:

5. The steps required for deleting files are same as that required for deleting folders.

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TOPIC 2.4.6: Creating Shortcut

To create a shortcut of a file or folder on the desktop, follow the instructions given below. For the purpose of illustration, we will create shortcut of the 'Personal Folder' created by you.

1. Open Windows explorer. Use the down arrow direction keys to reach C:.

2. Use the right arrow direction keys to open the sub-folder tree under C:. Now use the down arrow direction key to reach the 'Personal' folder created by you.

3. Once you have reached the 'Personal' folder, press the shortcut key on the keyboard. This will open a shortcut menu on the screen. Use the down arrow direction key to reach the option named 'Sent to' and press Enter. A sub-menu will appear with several options.

4. Use the down arrow direction keys to go to the option 'Desktop (create shortcut)' and then press Enter.

5. A shortcut of the folder will be created on the desktop

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User Tip

Copy

A shortcut method of copying files, folders or text is to select the object to be copied and then press Control key and C key.

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Copying to Floppy Disk

A shortcut method of copying files or folders to the floppy disk is to select the object to be copied and then press shortcut key on the keyboard. This will open a shortcut menu on the screen. Use the down arrow direction key to reach the option named 'Send to' and press Enter. A sub-menu will appear with several options. The first option is 31/2 Floppy (A:). It will appear pre-selected, just press enter. The file will be copied to the Floppy.

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Cut

A shortcut method to cut files, folders or text is to select the object to be cut and then press Control key and X key.

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Deleting Folders

If you delete a folder, all sub-folders and documents within the folder will also be deleted.

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File Name

When you make a copy of a file and paste it in the same folder, it is named as Copy of <file name>. For example when you created a copy of Testing One and pasted it in the same folder, it was named Copy of Testing One. However, when you make a copy of a file and paste it in another folder it retains its original name. For example, if you created a copy of Testing One and pasted it in another folder, it will be named Testing One.

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Paste

A shortcut method of pasting files, folders or text is to select the folder where the object has to be pasted and then press Control key and V key.

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Rename

A shortcut method of renaming files or folders is to select the file or folder that has to be renamed and then press F2 key. The cursor will start blinking in the area where file or folder name has to be changed. Just type the new name and press Enter.

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